Defects in green coffee are categorized as Primary (Category 1) and Secondary (Category 2)

Primary Defects

Primary (Category 1) defects direct impact the cup character of coffee. These defects include: Full Black, Full Sour, Fungus or Mold Damage, Foreign Matter, Whole Dried Cherries or Pods and Severe Insect Damaged beans.

Secondary Defects

Secondary (Category 2) defects impact the appearance of coffee but not necessarily its cup character. These defects include: Partial Black, Partial Sour, Slight Insect Damage, Broken, Cut and Chipped, Immature, Withered, Shell, White or Chalky, Floater or Spongy, Parchment covered beans or Husk pieces.

Full Defects

A full defect may be either Primary or Secondary and is composed of one or more single defects corresponding to the impact each type of defect has on the cup character.

Equivalent Defects

The ratio of equivalent defects determines the number of imperfect single beans of any type that when combined are recorded as one Full Defect.

Table of Equivalent Defect Ratios

Primary DefectsFull Defect ThresholdSecondary DefectsFull Defect Threshold
Full Black1Partial Black3
Full Sour1Partial Sour3
Dried Cherry or Pod1Immature5
Fungus or Mold1Withered5
Foreign Matter1Floater or Spongy5
Severe Insect Damage5Chalky White5
Broken, Chipped or Cut5
Parchment Bean5
Hull or Husk5
Slight Insect Damage10