Severe / Slight Insect Damage

Severe Insect Damage

Slight Insect Damage

Español: Granos con daños por insecto o brocados graves / ligeros
Français: Fève piquée ou scolytée grave / légère

Severe Insect Damage (3 or more perforations) is a Primary (Category 1) defect: 5 affected beans = 1 full defect
Slight Insect Damage (less than 3 perforations) is a Secondary (Category 2) defect: 10 affected beans = 1 full defect.
Broca damaged beans are identified by small (0.3 – 1.5 mm Ø) dark or clear holes. The path can be at any angle including longitudinally. Some beans may have three or more perforations, causing sometimes extended damage, chipping and fungi infestations visible as greenish or black spots
Cup: Varies. Impacts the appearance and yield of green and roasted beans and can result in dirty, sour, rioy (phenolic) or moldy flavors, especially when a female borer has excavated deep inside the bean, spreading fungus
Consideration: Ochratoxin A (OTA) risk
Cause(s): Insects feeding on coffee cherries and beans: worms, hoppers and beetles. The berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei) is a tiny beetle highly adapted to coffee and is the most serious pest in coffee agriculture. The female borer burrows into the unripe cherry, tunneling into the soft seed to lay eggs. Larvae tunnel out of the bean, creating additional holes. The incidence of broca is higher in hot climates and tends to decline as altitude increases.
Remedies: AGRICULTURAL: Integrated pest management techniques have proven successful at controlling broca damage. Doing so requires an understanding of coffee borer’s biological cycle to eradicate conditions that favor its propagation including a thorough harvesting and the removal of last pickings and fallen cherries. Second, employing use of natural predators such as the fungi Beauveria bassiana and/or African wasps (C. stephanoderis). Third, by deploying hanging traps made from water bottles or other containers, where alcohol and/or coffee extract is used as a lure.
PROCESSING: Severe insect damaged beans can be separated at the washing station by using the flotation tanks or by skimming pulped beans in fermentation tanks. Once delivered to the dry mill, catadoras and density sorters can easily remove severe insect damaged beans. Slightly damaged
insect damaged beans may not be detected by machinery and may need to be removed by hand.